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C.W. Gortner is the author of the historical novels The Secret Lion and the most recent, The Last Queen, just released by Random House. The Last Queen is the first-person fictional story of the infamous Juana la Loca, or 'Mad Queen' of Spain, and took six years to research and write. In this interview, Gortner talks about the novel, his inspiration for it, and how he was able to find the right agent and land a contract with a major New York Publisher.

Thanks for being here today. Why don’t you begin by telling us a little about yourself?

I write historical fiction; my new novel is The Last Queen, published by Ballantine Books, Random House. I’m passionate about books, animal rights and the environment. I’ve lived in the San Francisco Bay Area for the past twenty –five years but I’m half-Spanish by birth and also call Spain home. I hold an MFA in Writing with an emphasis on Renaissance Studies and have traveled extensively to research my work. It took many years to get a major offer from a large publisher; in the meantime, while I wrote, despaired and made secret pacts with every known spiritual entity for a break-through, I fed myself by working as a fashion marketer, editor, case manager, and administrative analyst. I published my first novel, The Secret Lion, with an independent print-on-demand publisher and, to my utter surprise, sold 8,000 copies online, which led to interest from my current agent and my sale last year to Ballantine. That, too, came as a complete surprise!

Tell us a bit about your latest book, and what inspired you to write such a story.

My novel The Last Queen is the first-person story of Juana of Castile, the last queen of Spanish blood to inherit the throne, and of her tumultuous relationships with her parents Isabella and Ferdinand, and her unwavering determination to fight for her throne against her husband Philip of Hapsburg. Known as Juana la Loca, the Mad Queen, Juana’s story is hardly mentioned outside of Spain, though she was the sister of Henry VIII’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon, and mother of the Emperor Charles V. Her life was full of drama, intrigue and passion, certainly worthy of a historical novel.

I’ve been fascinated by Juana for most of my life. In my childhood I lived near a ruined castle that had belonged to Juana’s parents. I’d clamber to its highest tower and think that Juana had touched these same stones, perhaps marveled, as I did, at the beauty of the Andalucian landscape. During a school trip to Granada, where Juana is buried, I found myself entranced by the marble effigy of this woman, whose face is turned away from the figure of her husband beside her. Most school children in Spain know the tale of Juana la Loca but I immediately wanted to know more. What was she like in real life? Did she really pull her husband’s bier behind her throughout the country, venerating his corpse? Was she truly mad? What happened to her to plunge her into such despair?

It took six years to research and write The Last Queen, including several trips to Spain and scrabbling in dusty archives. The challenge after the research was to sort through it all and decide what I wanted to write about. Fortunately, it quickly became clear that I wanted to focus on the woman herself— the fallible, humane, courageous and often lonely woman, whose experiences, while different from ours, certainly, are universal in the struggle to balance life and duty, betrayal and love. Juana has been dismissed, ignored and maligned by history but I discovered that she was an extraordinary figure for her time, and I felt she deserved a chance to tell her side of the story.

What will the reader learn after reading your book?

Hopefully, the reader will come away with a sensory experience of Juana and her world. I write fiction, so my primary object is to take my reader on an emotional journey. That said, I strive for historical accuracy within the confines of fiction and hope readers will learn more about this queen who’s been forgotten by most of the world, as well as life in Spain during this time. The 16th century was a brutal, quixotic era; I’m enthralled by its beauty and contradictions, but I don’t share many of its beliefs. I also hope readers will realize that sometimes what we learn from history books, what is presented to us as ‘fact’, can be a matter of interpretation. It all depends on whose view point we’re shown.

Do you get along with your muse? What do you do to placate her when she refuses to inspire you?

My muse is fickle; she tends to tease me with ideas, get me fired up and then desert me when I need her the most. Infuriating little sprite! However, over the years I’ve learned to accept the gifts she bestows and rely on finger-grease to do the rest. I’m zealous about writing every day. Even if I only get ten words out, I write them. I write at odd hours, mostly in the early evening and sometimes late at night. I need quiet and have arranged my work space in a parlor of my house. My dog lies at my feet and occasionally licks my ankles to remind me that writing, as much else in life, mustn’t be taken too seriously. I’m surrounded by book cases with all the books I’ve compiled for research. When the muse fails me, I grab a book and read. I just open it at random to seek a word, a sentence, something to re-inspire me. I’ll look at an illustration or portrait from the period. If all else fails, I can always write about the weather or a gown my character is wearing. The mere act of putting fingers to the keys is often enough to get me going. It might not be a stellar night’s work but, for me, the magic of writing comes with re-writing. I never pop champagne when the first draft is done. I revel in the fact that I actually finished something, then dig into the really hard stuff: the shaping of that mass of wobbly prose into a coherent whole.

What type of scenes give you the most trouble to write?

Beginnings! I have an awful time with beginnings. I’ve been known to re-write them more than any other part of a book; I could literally spend years trying to craft the perfect opening chapter. It’s an OCD thing with me. I’ve had to teach myself that if I want to move forward at all when working on a first draft, I must ignore that lousy opening chapter. It’ll never be what I envision because I haven’t written the book: nothing is envisioned yet, except in my brain. If I can just dash out that opening chapter and keep going without looking back, once I’m finished with the first draft the opening usually resolves itself. I can see clearly how it should look, and nine times out of ten, it’s nothing like what I first “envisioned.” The framework of the novel itself clarifies where it should start. A hard lesson for me to learn, but one which has saved me hours of banging my head against the computer screen! 

They say authors have immensely fragile egos… How would you handle negative criticism or a negative review?

Oh, I’d be upset. I have been upset! There’s no use denying it; your books are like your children and you want everyone to think they’re as special as you do. But I’ve learned to be philosophical. Reading is subjective; we bring our own inner worlds to the experience and not everyone is going to like what every writer has to say. Reviews usually represent one person’s opinion; if I’ve done my best, then I try to accept that I just didn’t happen to please that person. If I got more than one negative review, however, and a theme emerges, then I’d definitely try to determine if there’s something I can do different the next time. Writing thrives with improvement. Sometimes, reviews can show us the flaws and teach us where we can learn as writers.

How was your experience in looking for a publisher? What words of advice would you offer those novice authors who are in search of one?

I spent thirteen years looking for a publisher. I wrote four novels in the process, including the earlier version of The Last Queen, and was under contract with three separate agents. None of them were bad agents; they just weren’t right for me. Like many writers, after sending out hundreds of queries and piling up pyramids of rejections, when an agent offered me a contract, I said yes. It wasn’t until I’d left my third agent after years of futile submission and spent the next year writing and trying not to dwell on my battle scars that I realized how much grief I could have spared myself if I’d interviewed my agents beforehand. I ended up cutting a deal with a POD publisher myself for my first novel, and that experience gave me confidence; when I finally met my current agent (who is the right one for me!) I could ask the questions I needed to and prepare myself for the rounds of submissions in New York. I studied how books sell while marketing my first novel and I came to understand publishing much better; my agent appreciated this and helped clarify her role and her process; she kept the faith when I started to lose it, and she finally sold not one, but two, of my books in auction. In today’s challenging publishing climate, your agent is your lodestone. No one will value your writing as much as the right agent. After that, the right editor is the next blessing in a writer’s life.

So, the advice I’d give writers is twofold: take time to find the right agent for you. Check out what the agent has sold in the past and who he or she represents before you query and establish that this agent is someone you’d like to have representing you. Be selective. Remember, this is business and you’re providing the product. Every writer is different, and so is every agent. Talk to the agent who offers you representation to get a sense of their philosophy around selling books, ambitions for your writing, and the current climate for your type of work. The next advice I’d give is inform yourself as much as you can about the business of publishing, from the agent’s role to the editor’s, to marketing and publicity, as well as sales. There’s a ton of available information; make use of it. A well prepared writer is an asset to an agent, plus you should want to know as much as you can about the business where you hope to succeed.

Do you have a website/blog where readers may learn more about you and your work?

Readers can visit me at: www.cwgortner.com. My website has a link to my blog. My blog is called Historical Boys and I interview historical fiction writers, as well as share anecdotes about my writing experiences and talk about books I’ve read.

Do you have another book on the works? Would you like to tell readers about your current or future projects?

I’m currently completing my editor’s suggested revisions to my book about Catherine de Medici, which will be published by Ballantine sometime in 2009. I’m very excited about this novel, because Catherine is another of those maligned, misunderstood historical figures, and I was completely transformed by my research into her life. I started out wanting to write a book about an ambitious, power-hungry woman and ended up discovering someone quite different. She’s so unlike Juana, both in her outlook and the challenges she faced; and yet they share striking similarities.

As an author, what is your greatest reward?

Readers. Every time I get an e-mail from a reader who tells me he or she enjoyed my work, that’s my reward. The simple truth is, I write to be read. I revel in the process of writing, of course, and while I’m working I’m so focused on the character’s voice I don’t think about much else. But once those unwieldy pages have been pruned and polished into a manuscript, the reader comes into play. I need their eyes and hearts to experience my story; I need them to live it. Readers and writers are soul-mates; we need each other to be complete.

Thank you so much for spending this time with me. I had fun answering these questions and I hope readers will enjoy The Last Queen as much as I enjoyed writing it.

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In Latin America and Europe combined, approximately 250,000 bulls die each year. Do these bulls fall prey to a deadly virus, perhaps? Far from it. The bulls are tortured and killed for the sake of entertainment. Have we evolved at all since the Roman times?

Latest polls show that over 72% of Spanish citizens have no interest in bullfighting, yet, because of a small group of influential people in Spain, this inhumane tradition is being kept alive. Fortunately, in Europe and Latin America a growing segment of the population is standing up against bullfighting and calling for an end to this cruel spectacle.

Here to talk about bullfighting and what we can do to help is Alyx Dow, Programmes Officer (Anti-Bullfighting) for the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA).

Thank you for this interview, Alyx. Could you start by giving us some historical information on how bullfighting began? What is its origin?

There is not much specific information on how or where bullfighting began, but it is thought to date back to Roman times when many different species of animal were killed for the sake of entertainment in public arenas.

Bulls were also sacrificed for religious purposes and more recently, bullfights were (and often still are) held on Sundays, as part of Christian Saints festivals.

Most people associate bullfighting with Spain. Besides Spain, which other countries practice bullfighting?

Bullfight in SpainWithin Europe, bullfighting can be found in Spain, France and Portugal. Approximately 40,000 bulls die in bullfights every year in Europe.

In Latin America, bullfighting can be found in Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela. ‘Bloodless’ bullfights can also be found in the USA. Approximately 210,000 bulls in bullfights die every year in Latin America.

Does bullfighting differ according to the country? If so, in what way?

There are 3 types of bullfighting ‘styles’ – Spanish, French and Portuguese. The Spanish version is the most common across both Europe and Latin America. Bulls die in both the Spanish and Portuguese versions, although in the Portuguese style it happens behind the scenes, after the bullfight has finished. The French style does not lead to the death of the bull but is also very stressful for the animals involved.

A lot of people ignore what really happens during a bullfight. They have a simple, even romantic image of a torero taunting a bull and of one final thrust of the sword bringing death to the animal. What exactly takes place during a bullfight?

In the Spanish style, which is the most common, there are 3 stages:

1. After the bull enters the ring, toreros wave capes so that the bull charges several times. This is followed by the entrance of the picadors on horseback, who drive a long spear into the bulls back. Both of these short stages are designed to tire the bull and weaken its neck and shoulder muscles, causing it to drop its head. There is also a significant risk to the horses involved – although they wear padding, the experience is very stressful for them and can cause serious or fatal injury.

2. Men called banderilleros enter the ring and use weapons called banderillas (colourful short spears with harpoon ends) which further weaken the bull when they are stabbed into the top of the bulls back. By this point the bull has lost a significant amount of blood and is exhausted.

Bullfight, Spain3. The matador enters with a cape and sword. Tiring the bull further with several runs at the cape, the matador thrusts the sword through the bulls back, with the intention of severing the aorta. The sword often misses, piercing the lungs and the bull drowns in its own blood – as can be witnessed when bulls are often be seen with blood pouring from their nose and mouth at the end. If the bull does not die quickly, a small knife is used to sever its spinal cord at the neck. If the crowd deems it a ‘good’ kill, the matador is ‘awarded’ the bull’s ears and tail which he cuts off himself (the bull is often still alive during this).

The whole process takes approximately 20 minutes – and the bull suffers an agonizing and torturous death.

In spite of bullfighting being a cruel and inhumane tradition, many people—not only Spaniards—watch this spectacle. Why do you think this is and what does this say about human nature?

Within bullfighting countries there is a small but strong following that keeps bullfighting alive, largely based on the claim that it is part of the country’s culture. All bullfighting countries have a fascinating history, with a rich culture that they should be proud of. However, evidence is showing us that most citizens of these countries do not want animal cruelty to be part of their heritage. Just as with the ban on foxhunting in the UK, citizens are speaking out about the importance of animal welfare over an archaic ‘tradition’ that is neither necessary nor humane.

The latest polls in Spain show us that over 72% of Spanish people have no interest in bullfighting. This climbs to over 80% in the autonomous region of Catalonia. Anti-bullfighting sentiment is growing across Europe and Latin America – people are standing up against the protection of bullfighting as part of national heritage and calling for an end to this cruel spectacle.

Furthermore, the WSPA believes that culture is no excuse for cruelty, no matter where in the world it happens or the rationale behind it.

Unfortunately a huge amount of support also comes from tourism; again because tourists are led to believe that bullfighting is part of a particular country. They are unwittingly supporting a dying industry that thrives on the torture of an animal: many leave the fights shaken and disturbed by what they have witnessed, which is, simply, animal cruelty for the sake of entertainment.

What arguments do supporters of bullfighting use to defend their tradition?

They use many arguments to defend the spectacle, mostly in reference to culture and the economy. You can read more on these ongoing debates at www.bullfightingfreeeurope.org, a website sponsored by WSPA and ten other animal protection groups across Europe.

What is the WSPA doing to end bullfighting? Have there been any significant developments in the last few years?

In Catalonia, WSPA is running its Culture Without Cruelty campaign with member society ADDA, and there have been a series of successes in the region in recent years. 47 towns, including Barcelona, have declared themselves anti-bullfighting. You can sign our petition, calling for a ban on bullfighting in Catalonia, here

In Spain, WSPA is supporting work done by member society Stop Our Shame who are working to end the national subsidies (funded by Spanish taxpayers) given to the bullfighting industry, which total a staggering 530 million Euros a year.

In France, 3 towns have recently declared their anti-bullfighting status. You can find out more at Anticorrida.com.

WSPA is also working closely with an alliance of ten other animal protection organizations from across Europe to tackle the issue at European level. The EU currently gives subsidies (funded by EU taxpayers) to breeders of fighting bulls, as part of its annual agricultural subsidy system. We recently held a series of events in Brussels at the European Parliament to highlight this issue and call on Parliamentarians and the Commission to end these subsidies. You can find out more at www.bullfightingfreeeurope.org

In Latin America many of WSPA’s member societies are working towards bans of bullfighting across the region. The first two anti-bullfighting towns in the region have recently been declared: Baños de Agua Santa in Ecuador and Zapatoca in Colombia. In Medellin, Colombia, the first ever group of anti-bullfighting city councilors has been established. You can keep up to date with the latest developments on the WSPA International website.

What is Spain’s position?

In Spain, there is a small group of powerful and influential people behind the bullfighting industry that are keeping it alive. Bullrings are suffering from declining attendance and a lack of patience from the public in terms of its increasing awareness of animal welfare. Unfortunately, government officials often hesitate to speak out against the spectacle; as was the case a few years ago with foxhunting in the UK. However, the Spanish people are telling us they have had enough, as shown in Catalonia and the Canary Islands (who have also banned bullfighting), and by the recent banning of the broadcast of bullfights on state TV, following the assertion that it is too violent for children. We think it is about time that the government listens to its citizens and ends bullfighting for good in Spain.

Do you see Spain making bullfighting illegal any time soon?

Based on public opinion polls that have been done, dwindling attendance at bullfights as well as the achievements in recent years in getting anti-bullfighting declarations, we are confident that bullfighting is a dying industry that is destined to be banned in the near future.

Is there a way bullfighting could be modified to become a humane practice?

No – the practice would still involve placing an animal into an unnatural situation that causes the animal stress and anxiety, for the sake of entertainment. WSPA wants to see an end to bullfighting worldwide, in all its forms.

What can Spaniards do to help stop bullfighting in Spain?

Spanish people can help to end bullfighting in their country by writing to their local politicians and high level officials within the government, expressing their wish for national subsidies to the bullfighting industry to end, and for their to be a national legislative ban on bullfighting in Spain. They can also avoid attending bullfights and spreading the word to their friends and family.

They can also sign our petition to achieve a ban in Catalonia which can be found here.

Another way to help is to support their local animal welfare organizations, either through donations or by attending peaceful events that call on the government to end bullfighting.

What can the rest of the world do to help?

The number one thing that people can do to help end bullfighting is not to visit bullfights when they go abroad. Tourist money is a huge factor in keeping the industry alive. Whilst curiosity can often lead people to ‘just go once’, this is enough to sustain the industry and the animal cruelty that it promotes.

  • You can pledge not to visit a bullfight at WSPA member society The League Against Cruel Sports.
  • Sign the WSPA/ADDA petition to end bullfighting in Catalonia.
  • Spread the word to any friends, family and colleagues, especially if you know they are visiting Europe anytime soon.
  • Write to politicians in your own country, asking them to call on bullfighting countries to improve standards of animal welfare and not to promote cruelty for entertainment’s sake.

Is there anything else you’d like to say to our readers?

The WSPA is also campaigning for a Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare (UDAW) at the United Nations – international recognition that animals matter and governments should be doing more to protect them. Such an agreement would help us talk to governments about issues like bullfighting. You can sign the petition in support at www.animalsmatter.org.  

Thank you very much for taking the time to answer my questions on this important subject.

I would like to end this interview by quoting some wise words from Mahatma Ghandi:

“The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated”

 

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